Mesh and bathymetry for the North Sea (left) and resulting tidal range and co-phase lines for the M2 tidal constituent (right).
ICOM is being used to study tidal dynamics in modern and geologically ancient basins. The model can be forced astronomically (the equilibrium tide approach) or using oscillating tidal boundary conditions. A mesh for the North Sea and the resulting tidal range and phase for the M2 constituent are shown on the figure on the right. The simulation here was forced at the open boundaries.
A mesh for the globe using cartesian coordinates wrapped to a sphere and the resultant ICOM simulation results are shown below. Note the bathymetry-optimised mesh, with enhanced resolution in areas of rapidly changing bathymetry (e.g. the continental slope and mid-ocean ridge regions). The model is forced by the equilibrium tide potential and is solved on the spherical mesh. The results may then be 'unwrapped' to a longitude, latitude grid for visualisation.
Terreno mesh of the globe, wrapped to a sphere, focused on the North Atlantic region.
Global tidal simulation result for the principal lunar (M2) tidal constituent.
Simulation result shown to the left unwrapped to a longitude, latitude grid for ease of visualisation.
ICOM is also being used to study tides in geologically ancient seas. The graphics below illustrate a global Cretaceous (115 Ma) example. The palaeogeography is shown on the left, the mesh for the proto-North Atlantic region in the center and the M2 simulated tide on the right. The model was forced with the equilibrium tide potential as in the global example above.
Global palaeogeography for the late Aptian, Lower Cretaceous, 115 Ma. Bold lines are mid-ocean ridges and bold lines with triangles are subduction zones.
Terreno mesh of the Cretaceous globe, focued on the proto-North Atlantic region
Cretaceous global M2 tide simulation result, focused on the proto-North Atlantic region.